Greek Sity-States

The Polis

Question: What was the geographic and political center of Greek life?
Answer: The polis

Question: What was found at the center of a polis?
Answer: The acropolis, or fortified hill

Question: For what was the agora used?
Answer: This open space was used as a marketplace

Question: In the polis, who could vote, own property,hold public office, and speak for themselves in court?
Answer: Citizens, or natural-born, free Greek males

Question: What were the two greatest city-states, and what were the military strengths of each?
Answer: Sparta had the strongest army in Greece, while Athens had the strongest navy


Question: In what region of Greece was Sparta located?
Answer: It was located in the south-central region known as the Peloponnesus

Question: Who took over the Spartan government from the monarchy around 80 BC?
Answer: The aristocrats, or nobles

Question: Who were chosen from the assembly to run Sparta's daily government affairs?
Answer: Five managers called ephors

Question: Who did the farming in Spartan society?
Answer: The land was worked by helots, or slaves owned by the city-state

Question: Why did the Spartans try to prevent change in their way of life?
Answer: They believed that new ideas would weaken their society


Question: What is a written set of rules for governing?
Answer: A constitution

Question: Who put into effect the world's first constitution that favored the equality of all citizens?
Answer: Cleisthenes

Question: Who won the first Persian War at the Battle of Marathon?
Answer: The Greeks, led by the Athenians, defeated the Persian army led by Darius

Question: What was the original purpose of the Delian League?
Answer: It was a defensive league, or protective group, to guard against another Persian invasion

Question: Why might Pericles have been known as "first citizen"?
Answer: He rebuilt the palaces and temples on the Acropolis, he built the Parthenon, he built the Long Walls for protection, art, literature, and philosophy reached new heights under his rule

The Decline of City-States

Question: IN what conflict did Sparta defeat Athens?
Answer: The Peloponnesian War

Question: Who were the hired Athenian soldiers who joined the Persian army?
Answer: Mercenaries

Question: What happened after the Spartans established an oligarchy top rule Athens?
Answer: The Athenians successfully revolted and once again set up a democracy

Question: How did the Peloponnesian War help destroy the sense of community for most Greek city-states?
Answer: The costly war lasted a long time; people became more interested in making money and having a good time

Question: What were three reasons for the decline of the Greek city-states?
Answer: Bitterness between the classes, harsh Thebian rule, and the inablility to fight off invaders

People to Know

Question: Who made the first attempt to reform the Athenian government?
Answer: A noble named Draco

Question: Who prepared the first written plan of government, or constitution, for Athens?
Answer: Solon

Question: Whose rule could be called the Golden Age of Athens because of all that he accomplished?
Answer: Pericles

Question: Which general was defeated in the last Persian War and returned to Asia?
Answer: Xerxes

Question: What Macedonian leader conquered Greece in 338 BC?
Answer: Philip II