ES R MT Review

The World of Earth Science

Question: the study of the universe
Answer: astronomy

Question: a scientist who studies fossils
Answer: paleontologist

Question: the study of the sea
Answer: oceanography

Question: the study of the origin, history, and structure of the Earth
Answer: geology

Question: a scientist who studies earthquakes
Answer: seismologist


Question: a representation of the Earth's surface
Answer: map

Question: north, south, east, west
Answer: cardinal directions

Question: an imaginary circle halfway between the two poles
Answer: equator

Question: the distance north or south from the equator
Answer: latitude

Question: the most common cylindrical projection
Answer: mercator


Question: the color of the powder of a mineral
Answer: streak

Question: the splitting of a mineral along a smooth, flat surface
Answer: cleavage

Question: the breaking of a mineral along either curved or irregular surfaces
Answer: fracture

Question: a measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
Answer: hardness

Question: the way in which a mineral reflects light
Answer: luster


Question: Name the three types of rocks
Answer: igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

Question: heat and pressure forms ______________________ rock
Answer: metamorphic

Question: what kind of texture does an igneous rock have when it cools slowly?
Answer: coarse-grained

Question: What are strata?
Answer: layers in sedimentary rock

Question: Scientists classify rocks by ____________________ and ___________________.
Answer: composition, texture


Question: Name the series of steps to solve problems.....
Answer: Scientific methods

Question: Moving information from a curved surface to a flat surface causes....
Answer: distorton.

Question: What is a good example of a cylindrical projection?
Answer: mercator projection

Question: A repeating pattern of atoms, ions, or molecules, in a mineral is called....
Answer: a crystalline sructure

Question: Describe the texture of metamorphic rocks.
Answer: foliated, nonfoliated