How do you balance a chemical reaction?
Make sure that there is the same number of atoms of each type on each side of the equation (reactants vs. products). Do this by changing the coefficient in front of the chemicals.
Give the correct formula for Lithium oxide.
Describe the structure of an atom.
Nucleus contains protons (positive) and neutrons (neutral).
Electrons (negative) move around the nucleus in orbitals.
What is the suffex of binary molecules?
What is the difference between a cation and an anion?
cation - positively charged atom
anion - negatively charged atom
How do you calculate a medium's index of refraction?
where c=speed of light in a vacuum and v= speed of light in that medium
What is the angle of refraction?
- the angle between the refracted ray and the normal
What is the difference between a converging and a diverging lens?
Converging lens – a lens that is thickest in the middle and that causes incident parallel rays to converge through a single point after refraction
Diverging lens – a lens that is thinnest in the middle and that causes incident parallel light rays to spread apart after refraction
How would light bend as it enters a lake from the air?
- toward the normal
- it is moving from a fast medium to a slower medium
How are the following terms similar and different?
All are forms of light production with very little or no heat.
Chemiluminescence – as the result of a chemical reaction
Triboluminescence – from friction
Bioluminescence – reactions in living organisms
Phosphorescence – by the absorption of UV and emission of visible light over an extended time period
Fluorescence – absorption of UV and immediate emission of visible light
What is the purpose of stomata?
Stomata can close to prevent water loss by transpiration.
They open to allow for the change of gases necessary for photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Which plant tissue are root hairs formed from?
Root hairs are specialized epidermal cells. Epidermal cells are part of dermal tissue.
Describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- very simple
- no nucleus
- single celled
- include archaea and bacteria eg. E.coli
- more complex
- have a nucleus
- single-celled or multi-cellular
- have complex internal structures
- include protists, fungi, animals and plants
- larger than prokaryote
How is oxygen transported throughout the body?
Attached to hemoglobin on red blood cells.
Compare plants and animals in terms of: gas exchange, transport of materials through the body, food sources and reproduction.
|gas exchange||exhange gases through pores in leaves (stomata)||exchange gases through lungs|
vascular tissue used for transport
xylem for water and phloem for sugars
|cardiovascular system for transport of materials in blood|
|food||produce their own through photosynthesis||must eat food|
|reproduction||reproduce sexually and asexually||majority only reproduce sexually|
What are greenhouse gases?
Gases (eg. carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, ozone, CFCs, nitrous oxide) that traps radiation from the Earth's surface.
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water + sunlight produces glucose + oxygen
What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather – atmospheric conditions including temperature, precipitation, wind and humidity, in a particular location over a short period of time, such as a day or a week
Eg. A high of 28⁰C, sunny with cloudy periods, 30% chance of precipitation, wind from the west at 20km/h and a relative humidity of 40%
Climate – the average of the weather in a region over a long period of time, usually 30 years
Eg. The climate in southern Ontario is warm and humid during the summer and cold with snow during the winter.
What are some of the effects that climate change in the Arctic could have on the Earth?
- changes in shipping and transportation
- rising sea levels
- increased release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Describe the six main methods of electricity generation.
Geothermal – thermal energy below Earth’s surface is used to heat homes/buildings
Biofuels – plant based fuels to produce energy
Hydroelectricity – energy of moving water turns turbines to power generators
Solar power – solar panels absorb radiation from sun and convert it to electricity
Wind power – wind causes blades of wind turbines to turn, powering generator that produce electricity
Nuclear power – energy created by splitting nuclei of atoms
What are valence electrons? How do you determine how many an element has?
- electrons found in the outer orbitals
- look at the elements position on the period table (column 1 has 1 valence electron, column 2 as 2 valence electrons, column 13 has three valence electrons etc.)
What is a stem cell?
A specialized cell that can differentiate into many different cell types in an animal.
In which medium does light travel the fastest?
air (or a vacuum - technically)
What phase of mitosis is occuring when the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles?
Explain the differences between the five reaction types.
Synthesis reactions involve two or more reactants combining to produce a new product.
Decomposition reactions involve a compound breaking down into two or more simpler compounds or elements.
A single displacement reaction involves one element taking the place of another element in a compound.
A double displacement reaction involves the positive ions of two different compounds changing places and forming two new compounds.
A combustion reaction involves a substance reacting with oxygen to produce heat, light, carbon dioxide and water.