Question: A tone that mocks its subject and tries to push its audience to make a change.
Answer: Satiric

Question: A tone that employs slang.
Answer: Colloquial

Question: A tone which is anemic and trite.
Answer: Insipid

Question: An uptight tone – overly scholarly.
Answer: Pedantic

Question: Word choice employing a large amount of specialized language.

Ex: “The criteria are embedded within an indication of needs matrix, encompassing the continuum of care needs.”
Answer: Jargon

Logical Fallacies

Question: A occurs before B.
Therefore A is the cause of B.

Example: I ate breakfast today. I fell asleep in AP Lang. I must have fallen asleep because I ate breakfast! :O
Answer: Post hoc ergo propter hoc:

Question: Where the conclusion of an argument is also part of the premise (a specific type of circular reasoning)

Example: "To allow every man an unbounded freedom of speech must always be, on the whole, advantageous to the State, for it is highly conducive to the interests of the community that each individual should enjoy a liberty perfectly unlimited of expressing his sentiments"
-Richard Whately, Elements of Logic
Answer: Begging the Question

Question: An emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) or negative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts rather than the real issue at hand.

Example: If you believe the school should get rid of artifacts, you're a communist!
Answer: Ad populum

Question: This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them.

Example: The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will fishers do to support their families?
Answer: Red Herring

Question: This argument oversimplifies the opponents position to make it easier to attack.

Example: If you think kids shouldn't have to take PE in high school, you must like obesity!
Answer: Straw Man


Question: What is Exigence?
Answer: Exigence is the real world problem which prompts the writer to write. It is in a sense, the cause of the passage and is related to the writers thesis (and tone). Furthermore, exigence can be thought of as a problem in society which the author is addressing and trying to call attention too.

Question: Name at least 2 surface features which play a part in shaping a piece of writing.
Answer: Diction
Figurative Language
Rhetorical Devices

Question: Name the logical jump or (moral) assumption which is usually unavoidable in an argument.

Answer: The Warrant.

Question: How do Ethos, Logos and Pathos relate to each other?
Answer: In brief, Ethos defines the credibility of the author in the audiences mind, which in turn lends itself to believing his logic. Furthermore, the emotional appeal Pathos sways are immediate response to information which also makes us ready to believe in the authors credibility and logic. Logos serves as a structure for an argument, in order to make it cohesive and at least somewhat factual based (even if only in appearance).

Question: Name and describe two methods of organizing and argument.

Answer: Classical Model: The Aristotelian model, which focuses on Logos, Ethos and Pathos as well as their presentation and relationship to the reader.

Toulmin Model: A graphical model which focuses more on the logic behind an argument. The "bubbles" consist of Claim, Qualifier, Grounds, Warrant, Backing and Rebuttal.

Jolliffe Model: A more detailed version of the classical model which introduces a more graphic components. There are three parts: Rhetorical situation (Exigence, Audiance and Purpose), Rhetorical Appeals (Logos, Ethos and Pathos) and finally, Surface Features (Organization, Diction, Syntax, Imagery, Figurative Language).

Rhetorical Devices - P and S

Question: A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
Answer: Personification.

Question: Grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. This can involve, but is not limited to, repetition of a grammatical element such as a preposition or verbal phrase.

Ex: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity. . ." - Charles Dickens
Answer: Parallelism.

Question: Something concrete—such as an object, action, character, or scene—that represents something more abstract.

Ex: Dove, hawk
Answer: Symbol.

Question: A work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule.

Ex: Candide by Voltaire.
Answer: Satire.

Question: An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.
Answer: Pedantic.

Modes of Developmentment

Question: A story like list of events in the order that they have occurred.
Answer: Narrative Essay

Question: A mode of development focused on the ability of the writer to elaborate in great detail to describe an object, person, feeling, place, etc.
Answer: Descriptive Essay

Question: Mode of development in which the writer investigates a topic; collects, generates, and evaluates evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.
Answer: Argumentation

Question: A mode of development designed to convey to the reader how a change takes place through a series of stages or steps.
Answer: Process Analysis

Question: A personal or academic description or examination of the meaning of a specific word or phrase.
Answer: Definition Essay