USH Unit 7 Test Review


Question: Who were the Progressives?
Answer: urban middle class; managers and professionals, women

Question: What were two areas of society that Progressive reformers wanted to change?
Answer: -industrialization (big business, labor strife)
-urbanization (slums, political machines, corruption)
-immigration (ethnic diversity)
-inequality & social injustice (women & racism)

Question: Name the photographer that revealed "How the Other Half Lives" through photos of tenement housing? (hint: he was first to use flash)
Answer: Jacob Riis

Question: Name the person who wrote a book that exposed the meatpacking industry?
"He aimed for people's hearts but hit their stomachs" (book was called The Jungle)
Answer: Upton Sinclair

Question: Which Constitutional amendment is evidence that Progressive reforms still have an impact today?
Answer: 19th Amendment: Women got the right to vote

U.S. Presidents

Question: The "accidental president," he loved the outdoors and conservation.
Liked to say "speak softly and carry a big stick" and started the construction on the Panama Canal
Answer: Theodore Roosevelt

Question: This president supported imperialism and, under him, the U.S. annexed the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
(hint: He was assassinated.)
Answer: William McKinley

Question: This man was pushed to run for President but was cautious with reform
He caused a major divide between Republicans and Progressive Reformers
(hint: the heaviest U.S. president (weighed over 350 lbs)
Answer: William Howard Taft

Question: He was elected based on his campaign promise that the U.S. would stay out of WWI, but eventually he led them into the war
"The world must be made safe for democracy" (quote by him)
Answer: Woodrow Wilson

Question: Which President came up with the "Square Deal"? What did this mean?
Answer: Theodore Roosevelt; that the government should act fairly to all


Question: Name one positive effect of Imperialism.
Answer: Industrialization, Modernization, Exchange of Ideas and goods (expanding trade networks),
To kick out oppressive dictators and rescue people's lives/protect people's rights

Question: Name 2 negative effects of Imperialism.
Answer: Country's language/culture lost; democracy is unstable because people are not educated/don't know how to vote; tensions between countries; view of superiority; war

Question: The consequences of U.S. Imperialism in the Phillipines were that:
Answer: Philippines got their independence from Spain; but the U.S. did not let them be completely independent

Question: Why did the U.S. pick Panama to build a canal? (2-3 reasons)
Answer: Panama is the narrowest part of Central America (isthmus); they found the cure for yellow fever and malaria; they only had to help them fight a revolution against Colombia

Question: Even though the first U.S. President advocated that the U.S. stay out of foreign affairs, during the early 1900s, the U.S. changed policy and chose to imperialize many nations. Explain what happened and the consequences of U.S. imperialism in 1 of the following areas:

-the Philippines
-the Americas

Answer: Hawaii: rich U.S. sugar cane planters want Hawaii for the U.S.
Queen Liliuokalani was put in jail; culture and rights lost to the U.S.

Cuba: Cuba fighting for independence from Spain
-USS Maine sent to Cuba; protect U.S. citizens and economic interests
Maine ship exploded! (Remember the Maine)
Congress approves resolution telling Spain to leave
Teller Amendment: U.S. had no interest in taking over Cuba
U.S. war against Spain

Philippines: surrendered for $20 mill from the U.S., but the rebels had wanted independence (even helped fight for it); guerilla war vs. Americans; 1946 full independence

the Americas: Roosevelt Corollary (add to Monroe Doctrine): in cases of “wrongdoing” by Latin American countries the U.S. might exercise “international police power”
-for them to pay their debts to Europe

Mexico: Mexican revolution; U.S. soldiers captured so they start attacking; Germany sends Zimmerman Note to make alliance against the U.S.

Puerto Rico: hoped for independence, but made a U.S. territory; now common wealth (voluntarily joined with U.S. but self governed)


Question: Name the 5 causes of WWI (hint: MANIA)
Answer: Militarism
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary

Question: Name the Allied Powers
Answer: France
(in 1917: U.S.)

Question: Name the Central Powers.
Answer: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

Question: What two events caused the U.S. to join the war in 1917? (explain in detail and know the names of these two events)
Answer: Sinking of the Lusitania: German U-boats torpedo an ocean liner carrying American and British passengers

Zimmerman Note: Germany sends a telegram to Mexico asking them to be in alliance with them against the U.S.; the U.S. intercepts the note and it gets published in U.S. newspapers; people are outraged and demand the U.S. go to war

Question: Name three ways the U.S. supported WWI at home. (explain each in detail)
Answer: -Selective Service Act: draft for soldiers (18 and older and male = randomly selected to serve in the war)
-Liberty Bonds: Government sold bonds to raise money for the war; the government would pay them back with interest
-Victory Gardens: Families would grow gardens in order to send over food for the war and conserve supplies


Question: Stalemate
Answer: when both sides are fighting and no one is winning; there can be no decisive victory

Question: No Man's Land
Answer: the area between the trenches where no man dared to go; you are a clear target (almost guaranteed death)

Question: Dog Fights
Answer: describes the fighting between airplanes during WWI

Question: What were the three costs of the war? (explain each one)
Answer: Human
International Relations

Question: What was the end result of the Treaty of Versailles? How did the treaty lead to more conflict?
Answer: League of Nations was formed (U.S. did not join)
Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czechoslavakia, Yugoslavia = independent countries
Poland restored
Central Powers surrender colonies to League of Nations

Germany feels forced into signing the treaty; they hold a grudge --> WWII